Blood group phenotypes

Major blood group phenotypes and their frequencies

ISBT number/system name/[system symbol]

001 ABO [ABO]
Phenotype % Frequency
A1 29.7
A2 9.3
B 11.4
O 46.1
A1B 2.3
A2b 1.2

 

002 MNS [MNS]
Phenotype % Frequency
MMSS 6
MMss 9.1
MMSs 14.4
MNSS 3
MNss 23.3
MNSs 22.7
NNSS 0.4
NNss 15.6
NNSs 5.5

 

003 P1PK [P1PK]
Phenotype % Frequency
P1+ 74.8
P1- 25.2
004 Rh [RH]
Phenotype % Frequency
See Rh phenotypes  
005 Lutheran [LU]
Phenotype % Frequency
Lu(a+b–) 0.2
Lu(a–b+) 92.3
Lu(a+b+) 7.5
Lu(a–b–) Rare
006 Kell [KEL]
Phenotype % Frequency
K– k+ 90.9
K+ k– 0.4
K+ k+ 8.7
Kp(a+b–) <0.1
Kp(a–b+) 97.8
Kp(a+b+) 2.2
007 Lewis [LE]
Phenotype % Frequency
Le(a+b–) 22.4
Le(a–b+) 72.3
Le(a–b–) 5.3
008 Duffy [FY]
Phenotype % Frequency
Fy(a+b–) 19.7
Fy(a–b+) 32.7
Fy(a+b+) 47.6
Fy(a–b–) very rare
009 Kidd [JK]
Phenotype % Frequency
Jk(a+b–) 26.3
Jk(a–b+) 23.6
Jk(a+b+) 50.1
Jk(a–b–) rare
010 Diego [DI]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Di(a+b–) <0.01
Di(a-b+) >99.9
Di(a+b+) <0.1
Wr(a+) <0.01
Wr(b+) High incidence
011 Yt [YT]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Yt(a+b–) 91.9
Yt(a–b+) 0.3
Yt(a+b+) 7.8
012 Xg [XG]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Xg(a+) Male-65.6
  Female-88.7
Xg(a–) Male-34.4
  Female-11.3
013 Scianna [SC]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Sc:1,–2 99
Sc:–1,2 Rare
Sc:1,2 1
Sc:1,–2,Rd+ Rare
Sc:1,–2,Rd+ Rare
014 Dombrock [DO]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Do(a+b–) 18
Do(a–b+) 33
Do(a+b+) 49
Gy(a–) Rare
015 Colton [CO]
Phenotype % Frequency
Co(a+b–) 90
Co(a–b+) 0.5
Co(a+b+) 9.5
016 Landsteiner-Wiener [LW]*
Phenotype % Frequency
LW(a+b–) 97
LW(a–b+) Rare
LW(a+b+) 3
017 Chido/Rogers [CH/RG]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Chido phenotype  
CH/RG: 1,2,3 88.2
CH/RG: 1,–2,3 4.9
CH/RG: 1,2,–3 3.1
CH/RG: –1,–2,–3 3.8
CH/RG: –1,2,-3 Rare
CH/RG: 1,–2,–3 Rare
Rodgers phenotype   
CH/RG: 11,12 95
CH/RG: 11,–12 3
CH/RG: –11,–12 2
018 H [H]*
Phenotype % Frequency
H High incidence
019 Kx [XK]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Kx High incidence
020 Gerbich [GE]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Ge:2,3,4 >99.9 
Ge:–2,3,4 (Yus type) Rare
Ge:–2,–3,4 (Gerbich type) Rare
Ge:–2,–3,–4 (Leach) Rare
021 Cromer [CROM]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Cra, Tca, Dra, Esa High Incidence
Tcb, Tcc, WESa Low incidence
022 Knops [KN]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Kn(a+b–) 94.5
Kn(a–b+) 1
Kn(a+b+) 4.5
Kn(a+b+) 98
Sl(a+) 98
Yk(a+) 92
023 Indian [IN]*
Phenotype % Frequency
In(a+b–) Rare
In(a–b+) 99.9
In(a+b+) <0.1
024 Ok [OK]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Ok(a+) 100
Ok(a–) Rare
025 Raph [RAPH]*
Phenotype % Frequency
MER2 92
026 John Milton Hagen [JMH]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
JMH High incidence
027 I [I]*
Phenotype % Frequency
I High incidence
028 Globoside [GLOB]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
P High incidence
029 Gill [GILL]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
GIL High incidence
030 Rh-associated glycoprotein [RHAG]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Duclos High incidence
031 FORS [FORS]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
High incidence Low incidence
032 JR [JR]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Jra High incidence
033 LAN [LAN]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Lan High incidence
034 Vel [VEL]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Vel High incidence
035 CD59*
Phenotype % Frequency
CD59.1 High incidence
036 Augustine [AUG]*
Phenotype % Frequency
AUG1  
AUG2 >99%
037 Kanno [KANNO]*
Phenotype % Frequency
KANNO1  
038 SID [SID]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Sd(a+) 90%
Sd(a-) 10%
039 CTL2 [CTL2]*
Phenotype % Frequency
VER High incidence
RIF High incidence
040 PEL [PEL]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
PEL High incidence
041 MAM [MAM]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
MAM High incidence
042 EMM [EMM]* 
Phenotype % Frequency
Emm High incidence
043 ABCC1 [ABCC1]*
Phenotype % Frequency
   

 

Antigen Collections (series 200)*

205 Cost [COST]*
Phenotype % Frequency
Csa 95%
Csb 34%
207 li [I]*
Phenotype % Frequency
I <1
208 Er [ER]
Phenotype % Frequency
Era >99
Erb <1
Er3 >99
210
Phenotype % Frequency
Lec 1
Led 6
213 [MN CHO]
Phenotype % Frequency
HU  
M1  
Tm  
Can  
Sext  
Sj  

 

Low incidence antigens (700 series)*

Phenotype % Frequency
By, Chra, Bi, Bxa, Pta, Rea, Jea , Lia, Milne, RASM, JFV, Kg, JONES, HJK, HOFM, REIT <1

 

High incidence antigens (901 series)*

Phenotype % Frequency
AnWj, ABTI, LKE >90

Note: Unless indicated, frequencies are based on blood group statistics of Australian blood donors.

* Frequency typically is based on data from Caucasian populations, however variations do exist for some phenotypes in different ethnic groups.

Rh phenotypes

D antigen frequency is highest in Asians (99%) and Black populations (92%) but less frequent in Caucasian populations (85%).

Most D positive phenotypes have a conventional D antigen, however, variations in antigen structure can result in either a weak D or partial D phenotype (1-2% of Caucasians).  

Clinically, weak D individuals of types 1, 2, 3, 4.0, 4.1 and 5 can be treated as D positive and be transfused with D positive red cells. However, patients with weak type 4.2-11 and 15 should be treated as D negative and transfused with D negative red cells as they can form anti-D if exposed to D positive red cells.  

Partial D individuals can have different epitope expression and induce specific antibody production. As a result, they should be considered D negative and transfused with D negative red cells.   

 

Classification of Rh phenotype and genotype

Serology results from testing red cells with the five main Rh anti-sera, the Rh phenotype and probable RH genotype are shown in the following table:

Rh positive
Serology results and combined data Phenotype Probable genotype Shorthand symbol Approximate % frequency in Australia Other possible genotypes
D+ C+ E- c+ e+ CcDee CDe/cde  R1r 35.3 CDe/cDe 
cDe/Cde
D+ C+ E- c- e+ CCDee CDe/CDe R1R1 17.3 CDe/Cde
D+ C+ E+ c+ e+   CcDEe CDe/cDE R1R2 13.5 CDe/cdE  
cDE/Cde  
CDE/cde  
cDe/CDE  
cDe/CdE
D+ C- E+ c+ e+ ccDEe cDE/cde  R2r 12.3 cDE/cDe  
cDe/cdE
D+ C- E+ c+ e- ccDEE cDE/cDE  R2R2 2.3 cDE/cdE
D+ C- E- c+ e+ ccDee cDe/cde R0r 1.7 cDe/cDe

 

Rh negative 
Serology results and combined data Phenotype Probable genotype Shorthand symbol Approximate % frequency in Australia Other possible genotypes
D- C- E- c+ e+ ccdee cde/cde  rr 16.4  
D- C+ E- c+ e+ Ccdee ccdEe r’r 0.4  
D- C- E+ c+ e+ ccdEe cdE/cde r”r 0.7  

 

Notes: Frequencies are based on blood group statistics of Australian blood donors. Cells giving a positive reaction with anti-C may be further subdivided by testing with anti-Cw; Other Rh genotypes may be found but all have a frequency of <0.2%.